Thursday, December 28, 2017

Self-regulation (Part 1): Self-control

Earlier this week we celebrated Christmas with the family, including our 11 grand children, on Christmas eve. Of-course it wasn't the games or the food that would be the main focus of the evening but the anticipated sharing and opening of presents. Numerous times through out the evening I was met with a chorus of, "When can we open our presents?" Finally the time came for gratification with the tearing of wrappings and smiling faces.

Most children, when they are very young desire immediate gratification, particularly when it comes to presents or sweets. Self-gratification is what they instinctively desire but most children learn to develop self-regulation skills, often that means delaying immediate self-gratification for a higher but distant goal. Self-regulation is often characterised by the ability to ignore distracting impulses, being able to persist at a task, and not forgetting what they have to do to complete the task. 

More than 40 years ago Walter Mischel explored self-regulation with his now famous experiment referred to as the Stanford Marshmallow Experiment (see video example) which laid the groundwork for much of the research into self-control and self-regulation. In this experiment Mischel and his colleagues presented preschoolers with a simple choice. The experimenter sat each child in turn in front of a plate with a treat, such as a marshmallow. The child was then told that he or she had to wait a few minutes while the adult left the room but their choice was that they could eat the one marshmallow or could have an extra one if they could delay eating until the adult returned to the room. This led to further research that found children who could delay self-gratification at this stage were often more successful in later life.

This morning I listened to a an ABC 'Life Matters' podcast called "Self controlling your future" . Amanda Smith interviewed Dr Sandhya Ramrakha, research manager for the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, also maintained that young children with more self-control had better life outcomes. This is based on a New Zealand longitudinal study of 1000 subjects. Dr Ramrakha proposed that self-control is a skill that can be learned.  Parents and teachers can teach children many important skills that promote self-control. This can be achieved by encouraging them to: take turns, delaying gratification in order to obtain a set goal, improving attention span by gradually increasing the amount of time to concentrate and focus attention on a particular task. Naturally the best window of opportunity is in the preschool years and continuing throughout the childhood years.

Monday, September 18, 2017

New phonics test will do nothing to improve Australian children's literacy

Misty Adoniou, University of Canberra

Minister Birmingham released a report today recommending that all Year 1 students in Australia complete a phonics test. The panel responsible for the report has recommended that Australia adopt the Year 1 phonics screening check that has been used in England since 2011.

What is phonics?

Phonics is the process of matching sounds to letters. It is an important skill when learning to read and write in English. There are two main approaches to teaching children phonics - synthetic phonics and analytic phonics.

Analytic phonics starts with taking a word that children know the meaning of, and then analysing it to see how the sounds in the word match the letters we see within the word. So five-year-old Emma will learn that her name starts with the sound “e” which is represented by the capital letter E, followed by the sound “m” which is represented by the two letters “mm”, and ends with the sound “u”, which is represented by the letter a.

Synthetic phonics starts with letters which the children learn to match with sounds. The meaning of the words are irrelevant, and indeed, inconsequential. The theory is that the children should master letter/sound matches first before trying to attend to meaning.

Which phonics method is better?

There is no evidence that one phonics approach is better than the other. In England, the US and Australia, there have been major inquiries into reading and all have concluded that systematic and explicit phonics teaching is a crucial part of effective reading instruction. But none have found any evidence that synthetic phonics approaches are better than analytic phonics approaches, or vice versa.

All inquiries have concluded that whatever phonic instruction method is chosen, it should be one part of a suite of skills children should have when learning to read.

What is the phonics test?

The phonics test is based on synthetic phonics. The children are given 40 words on a computer screen, with no context. The words are not put in a sentence, or given any meaning. This is deliberate, and an important feature of a synthetic phonics approach, as the children must show they are not relying on meaning or prior experience with the word in order to successfully decode it.

To this end, 20 of the words the children are given are nonsense words, like “thrand”, “poth” and “froom”, to ensure they are not using meaning to decode the words.

Why are we introducing it?

Minister Birmingham is concerned about the numbers of students in Australia who are struggling with literacy. The decline in literacy standards of Year 9 students is very concerning, and he is right to be looking for solutions. But the solution will not be found in this phonics test for six-year-olds.

As the test has been has already been in use for six years in England we are fortunate to be able to learn from their experience. A major evaluation of the test conducted by the Department for Education in England found that the test is not delivering improvements in literacy capabilities, and in fact, is delivering some unwanted side effects, like class time being spent learning to read nonsense words rather than real words.

Numerous other recent studies of the implementation of the phonics test in England provide valuable information that allow us to test the claims for the test against research evidence.

What does the research say?

Claim: The phonics test has improved reading results in England since its introduction.

Evidence: Year 1 children in England are certainly getting better at passing the phonics test. Over the past six years, pass rates have increased by 23%. This means around 90% of Year 1 children in England can now successfully read nonsense words like “yune” and “thrand”.

However research has found that the ability to read nonsense words is an unreliable predictor of later reading success.

And so far, the phonics test in England has not improved reading comprehension scores.

As the test only tests single syllable words with regular phonic patterns, it is not possible to know how many English children can read words like “one”, “was”, “two”, “love”, “what”, “who”, or “because”, as such words are not included in the test. This is unfortunate because these are amongst the 100 most common words in the English language, which in turn make up 50% of the words we read everyday - whether in a novel, a newspaper article or a government form.

“Yune”, “thrand” and “poth”, on the other hand, make 0% of the words we read.

Claim: The phonics test will pick up children who are having reading difficulties. Birmingham has stated “the idea behind these checks is to ensure students don’t slip through the cracks”.

Evidence: Research in England has found that the test was no more accurate than the teacher’s judgement in identifying children with reading difficulties. Teachers already know which children struggle. As researchers, teachers and principals have all said - teachers need more support in knowing how to support those struggling children.

Claim: The phonics test will provide detailed diagnostics to support teachers to make effective interventions. The chair of the panel recommending the test says that the phonics test will drill into the detail of phonics to establish what children know.

Evidence: A thorough analysis of the test’s components found it fails to test some of the most common sound/letter matches in English, and indeed screens for a very limited number of the hundreds of sound/letter matches in English. They found that children can achieve the pass grade of 32 from 40 with only limited phonic knowledge.

Other research found the test fails to give any information about what the specific phonic struggles of a child might be , or whether the struggles are indeed with phonics.

These limitations mean the check has negligible diagnostic or instructional use for classroom teachers.

Learning lessons

Australia is in the fortunate position of being able to learn from the research that has been conducted since the implementation of the phonics test and mandatory synthetic phonics teaching in England. The lesson is clear. The test is unable to deliver what was hoped. Australia should look elsewhere for answers to its literacy challenges.

Already state Education Ministers have begun to let Birmingham know that they will not be taking up the offer of the national phonics test.

This may be an issue where Australia is able to overcome its intellectual cringe, and act on the research evidence rather than old colonial ties.

Misty Adoniou, Associate Professor in Language, Literacy and TESL, University of Canberra

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Thursday, July 13, 2017

Developing Literacy in the Secondary Classroom

This week I received our latest book.

Let me share some insights about this publication.

'Developing Literacy in the Secondary Classroom is an accessible and comprehensive guide to a wide range of topics relating to literacy, learning and assessment. Taking a learner-centred approach with discussion questions and activities that encourage reflection on key issues and topics covered in each chapter, this is a book that will appeal to teachers and researchers looking for a clear, well-referenced and very practical guide to the field.' Marcello Giovanelli, Senior Lecturer, Aston University.

Today's secondary classrooms are increasingly diverse places and skilled teachers need to be able to develop flexible teaching strategies that can be adopted to best serve diverse learners with divergent needs. This book provides teachers and pre-service teachers with practical guidance on many essential aspects of literacy teaching, and shows how research can be applied to teaching practice.

Key coverage includes:
  • The fundamental aspects of teaching reading and writing to adolescent learners
  • How to intelligently select and use literature with secondary students
  • Multi-literacies and the use of technology in Teaching
  • Assessment strategies for the classroom
  • Teaching techniques for developing reading comprehension